# Unit 13: Chapter 13 Question Preview (ID: 54059)

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Chapter 13 Review For Exam 3.

**We are more likely to reject the null hypothesis when**

a) the amount of variability in the population we sampled is low.

b) the experimental manipulation did not affect the dependent variable.

c) the sample has more variability than the population.

d) the test statistic is very small.

**Where do most scores fall along a normal curve?**

a) at the end with the longest tail

b) at the left end of the distribution

c) at the right end of the distribution

d) near the center

**Which of these illustrates a directional hypothesis?**

a) Cognitive Behavior Therapy is more effective in treating agoraphobia than psychoanalytic therapy.

b) Greek and independent student GPAs vary.

c) Men and women differ in manual dexterity.

d) Students who study together earn different test scores than students who study alone.

**Which criterion does an experimenter use to decide whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis?**

a) beta

b) effect size

c) power

d) significance level

**Many statistical tests assume that the population you have sampled is normally distributed. This means that if you could measure everyone in the population on the dependent variable,**

a) the bulk of the scores would fall above the mean.

b) the distribution of scores would be symmetrical and bell-shaped.

c) the left end of the distribution would have the longest tail.

d) the right end of the distribution would have the longest tail.

**Mercedes will reject the null hypothesis if she observes a difference between treatment conditions that is so large that it could have occurred by chance less than 1 in 100 times. The .01 value is Mercede’s**

a) effect size.

b) risk of committing a Type 2 error.

c) significance level.

d) statistical power.

**When we set our significance level at .01, this corresponds to the notation,**

a) p .01.

b) p = .01.

c) p .01.

d) p .01.

**Calvin has set his alpha level at .05. He will reject the null hypothesis if he observes a difference between treatment conditions that is so large that it could have occurred by chance**

a) 5 in 100 times.

b) at least 5 in 100 times.

c) less than 5 in 100 times.

d) more than 5 in 100 times.

**Variability can be produced by experimental errors, which are fluctuations in subjects’ scores produced by**

a) experimenter bias.

b) extraneous variables in the experimental procedure.

c) influences on subjects not related to the independent variable.

d) all of these

**We should select a significance level ____ in order to conduct a valid test of our hypothesis.**

a) after we have collected all experimental data

b) after we have performed all statistical tests

c) based on our test statistic

d) before conducting the experiment

**Beta is a ____.**

a) Type I Error

b) Type II Error

c) Type III Error

d) Type VI Error

**If an experimenter finds that the difference between two treatment groups is significant at the .05 level, then**

a) the odds of obtaining this difference by chance are 95 in 100 times.

b) the probability of this treatment effect is 5%.

c) we would expect chance to produce a result this large less than 5 in 100 times.

d) we should accept the null hypothesis.

**The ____ tells us whether scores are spread out a great deal or tightly clustered around the mean.**

a) median

b) mode

c) range

d) variance

**The ____ divides a distribution of scores in half.**

a) mean

b) median

c) mode

d) range

**The variance is the**

a) average of the squared deviations about the mean.

b) difference between the highest and lowest scores.

c) sum of the deviations about the mean.

d) the square root of the average of the squared deviations about the mean.

**If you reject the null hypothesis when it is actually true,**

a) you have committed a Type 1 error.

b) you have committed a Type 2 error.

c) you should report a significant treatment effect.

d) you should revise your level of significance.

**We commit a Type 2 error when we**

a) accept the null hypothesis when it is true.

b) fail to reject the alternative hypothesis when it is false.

c) fail to reject the null hypothesis when it is false.

d) report that our findings are significant when they are not.

**The mean of a set of data is the**

a) arithmetic average.

b) difference between the highest and lowest scores.

c) middle score in a distribution.

d) most frequent score in a distribution.

**Variability refers to the**

a) amount of fluctuation we see in a distribution of scores.

b) effect of the independent variable.

c) statistical significance of research findings.

d) typical score in a distribution.

**H0 represents the**

a) alternative hypothesis.

b) hypothesis an experimenter indirectly tests.

c) null hypothesis.

d) research hypothesis.

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