Human Physiology Unit 02 Exam Review A- Cell Signaling/ Endocrine Question Preview (ID: 36933)


Review Part 1.

Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) work by _________, which are necessary for the synthesis of _________
a) inhibiting cyclooxidase (COX) enzymes, prostaglandins
b) facilitating Transaminase (TA) enzymes, cytokines
c) activating human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hGC), somatomammotropins
d) confusing students, ideas and concepts

Cytokines and Growth Factors are examples of
a) autocrine/ paracrine regulation
b) oppositional antagonists
c) synergistic hormones
d) inhibitory antagonists

prostaglandins, found in _______, are derived from arachidonic acid produced by breaking down ________ __________
a) nearly all cells, membrane phospholipids
b) the epithelia of blood vessels, membrane glycoproteins
c) fungiform papillae, bile salts
d) the extracellular matrix, cell membranes

the pineal gland, which secretes _________ to regulate ___________ is inhibited by __________
a) melatonin, circadian rhythms, light
b) serotonin, moods, parasympathetic innervation
c) dopamine, movement, ACTH
d) glutamate, peristalsis, dexamathazone

the adrenal medulla is actually ________ tissue, and produces 2 hormones, ____________ and __________ in response to signals from the sympathetic nervous system
a) neural, epinephrine/ norepinephrine
b) epithelial, glucocorticoids/ metallocorticoids
c) connective, thrombonin / erythropoeitin
d) ectopic, insulin / glucagon

The anterior pituitary gland releases its hormones, which primarily__________, in response to
a) activate other glands, hormones from the hypothalamus
b) regulate circadian rhythms, hormones from the pineal gland
c) regulate fluid homeostasis, innervation from the cerebellum
d) suppress anabolic reactions, decrease in ATP availability

while the cAMP pathway generally activates protein kinases, the phospholipase C pathway
a) phosphorylates glycoproteins
b) triggers the release of calcium ions
c) leads to the opening of ion channels in the cell membrane
d) leads to fusion of vesicles bearing specific carrier proteins to the cell membrane

In the Tyrosine Kinase pathway, used by _________, the receptors are unique in that they are ______
a) Insulin, dimers
b) Thyroxine, Iondinated
c) apoptosis hormones, polyphylic
d) glucagon, G-protein mediated

Although they are ___________, insulin and glucagon do not inhibit the actions of each other
a) antagonistic
b) synergistic
c) reciprocal
d) conflated

Some hormones bind to nuclear receptor proteins, forming functional ________ that activate or inhibit specific ________ ______
a) Transcription Factors, Gene Expression
b) Catalyases; second messenger cascades
c) G- protein complexes, Adenylate Cyclase
d) post hormones, cellular processes

Synergistic hormones can be _______, where the effects 'stack'; or _________ where....
a) additive; permissive... one hormone enhances the responsiveness of the cell to the other
b) summative; facultative... one hormone increases the concentration of the other
c) associative, complimentary.... multiple hormones are needed to achieve the target effect
d) homeodimers, heterodimers; ... different types of hormones come together to trigger the effect

______ is the time required for the concentration to drop by 50%
a) half- life
b) persistence
c) dwell time
d) clearance

some hormones are also function as _________ in the nervous system
a) neurotransmitters
b) glial regulators
c) selective reuptake inhibitors
d) nutrients

the effect of all hormones is dependent on their ____________ in the ________ ____________
a) concentration, blood plasma
b) persistence, synaptic cleft
c) affinity, binding site
d) modification, target cell

Steroid hormones, which are all derived from _________, can be _____________, from the adrenal cortex, or sex hormones, which are made in the_____
a) Cholesterol, Corticosteroids, Gonads
b) Membrane Phospholipids, Adrenosteroids, Gonads
c) Cholesterol, Prostaglandins, Pituitary Gland
d) Short polypeptides, Corticosteroids, Testis, Ovaries, etc.

a prohormone like pro-opiomelanocortin can be cleaved to form
a) more than one functional hormone
b) a prehormone, that then becomes a functional hormone through iodination
c) a post hormone, like Estrogen
d) two dimers, which allow it to bind to nuclear receptors

Steroids, Melatonin, and Thyroid Hormones
a) are all lipophyllic
b) all use cAMP as a second messenger
c) are all made from metalloproteins
d) bind to surface receptors that are dimers

_________ hormones bind to surface receptors, while ________ bind to receptors inside the cell as they can permeate the cell membrane
a) Polar, Lipophyllic
b) Nuclear, Ligand
c) Receptor Mediated, CREB
d) First Messenger, Second Messenger

An endocrine gland is distinct from an exocrine gland in that it
a) delivers its secretions to the bloodstream directly
b) delivers its secretions to the bloodstream via a duct or tube
c) is considered an 'effector'
d) delivers its secretions with the help of carrier proteins

paracrine regulation involves __________; while autocrine involves________
a) different cell types in the same tissue/ organ ; same cell type
b) activation/ inhibition of an adjacent gland ; self regulation by a gland via negative feedback
c) hormones that are delivered to multiple tissue types; delivery to only one tissue
d) hormones that inhibit the production of others ; hormones that inhibit their own production

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