Genetics Part 1 Question Preview (ID: 35752)

Part 1 From Usatestprep.

Place the components in order, from smallest to largest. Chromosome DNA nucleotide Codon Gene
a) Chromosome, DNA nucleotide, Gene, Codon
b) DNA nucleotide, Codon, Gene, Chromosome,
c) Codon, Gene, DNA nucleotide, Chromosome,
d) Gene, Codon, DNA nucleotide, Chromosome,

The table in your study guide shows the relative size of the genomes, number of genes, and number of chromosomes for a variety of different organisms. What is the relationship between the complexity of an organism and the number of chromosome
a) There is a strong tendency for advanced organisms to have more chromosomes.
b) There is a strong tendency for advanced organisms to have fewer chromosomes.
c) There is no relationship at all between the complexity of an organism and the number of chromosomes.
d) There is a weak link between advanced organisms and more chromosomes, but some organisms do not follow this rule.

A segment of DNA that codes for the ability to make one type of protein molecule is known as a(n)____________________.
a) axon
b) codon
c) gene
d) intron

All of the following EXCEPT the resistance of _________ demonstrate artificially selected resistance.
a) beef cattle, to shipping fever,
b) many agricultural wheat varieties, to drought and fungus,
c) Anatarctic fish to freezing, due to antifreeze proteins in their blood,
d) many common grasshopper species to pesticides, such as diazinon, sevin, and others,

Genetically modified grass varieties that carry genes for disease and drought resistance are now available. They were produced by recombinant DNA technology. However, the government has still not approved the sale of most of them, because ___
a) The possibility of the fragile recombinant organisms dying.
b) The possible patent violations from competing biotechnology companies.
c) Because the new genetically altered grasses are too expensive for consumers.
d) Release of genetically engineered organisms into the environment with unpredictable results.

A gene for disease resistance in fir trees is transferred to pine trees using modern DNA technology. How might this be economically helpful to tree farmers?
a) More pine trees would live to maturity, increasing lumber output.
b) Erosion of topsoil would no longer be a concern.
c) Abnormal pine tree growth would be eliminated.
d) Pine trees would be safe from pine beetle attacks.

As scientists have developed more productive crop varieties, farmers have switched from growing many traditional varieties to new high-yield varieties. In Peru, the Indians once grew 500 varieties of potatoes but now only 20.
a) This is dangerous because it reduces the variety of crops available for human diets.
b) This is dangerous because it requires a larger investment than small farmers can make.
c) This is dangerous because it makes the overall crop more susceptible to pests or disease.
d) This is dangerous because it could reduce or cause the extinction of some predatory insects.

What is true about any two normal gametes from a human female parent?
a) Their chromosomes are exactly the same.
b) They can combine to form a new organism.
c) Each has a diploid number of chromosomes
d) They have the same number of chromosomes

A farmer cut a branch from his favorite, mature fruit tree, planted it in the soil, and it grew to be a new tree. The farmer's method of growing a new plant is a type of _____.
a) pollination.
b) seed production.
c) asexual reproduction.
d) sexual reproduction.

____________ livestock are produced with extra copies of growth hormone genes to allow them to grow faster and produce meat that is low in fat.
a) Cloned
b) Transcribed
c) Transgenic
d) Translated

Since the early 1990s, geneticists have produced ____________ crops that yield fruits and vegetables commonly found in U.S. supermarkets.
a) large harvest
b) genetically modified
c) mutationally induced
d) transgenically reduced

Scientists typically transgenically alter ________ to produce more desirable species.
a) bacteria
b) plants
c) humans
d) livestock

Humans use ________ to pass on desired phenotypic traits to the next generation of organisms.
a) selective insemination
b) artificial fertilization
c) natural breeding
d) selective breeding

DNA is typically found in cells in the form of a very long strand that is coiled many times and contains thousands or millions of nitrogen bases. Which term best describes this very long molecule of DNA?
a) Chromosome
b) gene
c) allele
d) nucelotide

Many farmers now grow insect-resistant varieties of cotton. The gene for the favorable trait, in this case, insect resistance, is transferred to the cotton's DNA using
a) DNA fingerprinting.
b) tissue culture.
c) bacterial plasmids.
d) in vitro fertilization.

The development and use of transgenic farm animals has not progressed as fast as the development of transgenic plant species. This may be due to all of reasons given EXCEPT
a) inadequate technology.
b) consumer safety issues.
c) susceptibility to disease.
d) possibility of infertile animals.

In the near future gene therapy may provide cures for genetic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency or cystic fibrosis. In this case, scientists are using __________ to deliver good genes, or genes to halt a disorder, to the cells of a p
a) bacteria
b) carrier proteins
c) vaccines
d) viruses

How many pairs of chromosomes does a genetically-normal human being have?
a) 23
b) 36
c) 46
d) 48

Suppose farmers want to create a new form of potato that is more nutritious than the kind sold in stores today. These farmers would MOST LIKELY choose
a) one nutritious species of potato to breed.
b) two nutritious species of potatoes to breed.
c) three potato species with different nutrition levels to breed.
d) one nutritious and one non-nutritious species of potato to breed.

In nature, organisms mate without human interference. This is called
a) artificial selection.
b) non-random mating.
c) random mating.
d) selective breeding.

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