Quarterly 4-Gr 8 Review: Question Preview (ID: 31794)

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***The introduction of a non-native plant negatively affects an environment in every way except?
a) It competes with native plants by growing much quicker, and depleting resources that are needed by the native species.
b) It destroys food webs by decreasing the number of plants. Herbivores would eventually die, then carnivores.
c) It improves the biodiversity of an environment by increasing a variety of organisms living in a healthy ecosystem.
d) It is invasive meaning it takes over the resources that other plants need and eventually causes death of other organisms.

Why do non-native plants threaten native plants?
a) Non-native plants are able to mutate rapidly.
b) Non-native plants cause native animals to relocate.
c) Non-native plants are able to be used for medicine.
d) Non-native plants compete with native plants for resources.

What most likely happened to a species that is found in the fossil record but have no living members?
a) They had offspring of a different species.
b) They mutated to other species.
c) They became extinct.
d) They never really existed.

Over time, organisms evolve from a common ancestor. Which process best explains why they now have different characteristics?
a) Extinction
b) Respiration
c) Asexual respiration
d) Adaptation

A fossil found in one rock layer is of the same species as a fossil found in a deeper rock layer. Why are the two fossils slightly different in structure?
a) this species changed over time.
b) this species had many predators.
c) this species’ life span has increased.
d) this species changed its food supply.

What is the result of rock layers being folded upwards?
a) tectonic plates move apart forming valleys
b) fossils are created as the layers are disrupted
c) mountains are formed by the layers being forced upward
d) oceans are created because of the change in the layers

**Sedimentary rock layers tell us everything about the history of the fossil record except
a) what types of rock/sediment were deposited earliest,
b) what organisms were present at different times,
c) how life forms changed over time.
d) how organisms became extinct

***What is true about deep layers of sedimentary rock and how they may change over time?
a) they may contain the youngest fossils after many years.
b) they may be reformed, and the layers may be forced up again to create new land forms.
c) they may destroy fossil evidence because of the way they form.
d) they may never have any fossil evidence in the deepest layers.

Environmental scientists conduct investigations to learn about the environment. Which method helps reduce bias during an investigation?
a) develop a hypothesis after collecting data in the investigation
b) limit the amount of background research before the investigation
c) avoid coming to a conclusion before analyzing the data
d) obtain other opinions concerning what should happen during the investigation

Removing trees from a habitat changes the area for many species by
a) decreasing the temperature.
b) decreasing the protective cover.
c) increasing the oxygen levels.
d) increasing the food supply.

Using wind turbines instead of burning coal positively affects the environment by
a) slowing down the water cycle.
b) distributing water more evenly.
c) increasing the amount of water available.
d) keeping harmful chemicals out of the water cycle.

Which of the following best explains the presence of a sea-life fossil in the rock on top of a mountain?
a) The fossil was carried up the mountain by glaciers and over time became buried in the ground.
b) The fossil was left in the mountains from a volcanic eruption.
c) The fossil once lived in mountains, but has since evolved into sea-life.
d) The fossil is a part of the sedimentary rock that was once buried in the ground and then uplifted.

A species lives in a particular environment. Which of the following statements best describes the environment that the species lives in and how the species will look over thousands of years? The environment will
a) stay the same and the traits of the species will change.
b) stay the same and the traits of the species will stay the same.
c) have changes, but the traits of the species will stay the same.
d) have changes that could lead to differences in the traits of the species.

How does a high level of sediment in water reduce the quality for aquatic life?
a) decrease the salinity
b) decrease the temperature
c) decrease dissolved oxygen
d) increase the amount of carbon dioxide

Why are non-native plants a threat to native plants?
a) Non-native plants are able to mutate rapidly.
b) Non-native plants cause native animals to relocate.
c) Non-native plants are able to be used for medicine.
d) Non-native plants compete with native plants for resources.

What effect does excess nitrogen, a nutrient found in fertilizer that is carried by runoff into bodies of water, have on organisms in a pond or lake ecosystem?
a) Algae grow rapidly.
b) Mutations occur gradually in fish.
c) Clam shells are slowly weakened.
d) Frogs adapt quickly to new food sources.

What is the best evidence that the surface of Earth has changed over time?
a) Some rock layers are very thick.
b) Some species have become extinct.
c) Marine fossils are found in mountain areas.
d) Igneous rock is found on all tectonic plates.

How would an increase in the number of caterpillars that eat the leaves off of trees affect an environment?
a) Air temperatures would decrease.
b) Tree populations would decrease.
c) The diversity of trees would increase.
d) The amount of oxygen in the air would increase.

Rabbits with light fur outnumber rabbits with dark fur because rabbits with light fur
a) produce more fur.
b) have a more restricted diet.
c) produce fewer offspring each year.
d) have a better chance of surviving and reproducing.

When paleontologists conduct investigations to answer questions about fossils, they need to _______________ before making a valid conclusion.
a) collect relevant evidence.
b) tell people about the data.
c) publish results from the investigation.
d) discuss the investigation with other scientists.

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