Sociology Final Exam Review: Question Preview (ID: 31609)

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can be either positive or negative and can be given by anyone in a group, not just someone official.
a) Informal sanctions
b) Formal sanctions
c) Rehabilitation
d) Values

A ____ is a norm with great moral significance to a society.
a) folkway
b) more
c) law
d) value

Interactionist Goffman believed that human interaction is like a play on a stage: everyone wears masks and plays different roles depending on the situation. This is called ___.
a) dysfunction
b) social structure
c) dramaturgy
d) Social Darwinism

Humans are born...
a) with instincts.
b) having mores.
c) understanding cultural universals.
d) knowing how to speak a language.

Which of the following is NOT a basic value that is commonly held in the United States?
a) working hard
b) being efficient and practical
c) placing little importance on material possessions
d) achieving success

The first step when a convict enters most prisons in the United States is _________, in which the person is issued standard clothing, given a haircut, and deprived of privacy.
a) resocialization
b) imitation
c) desocialization
d) accommodation

____ theory says that socialization of children is useful in maintaining the status quo by teaching them their place in society.
a) Functionalism
b) Conflict perspective
c) Recidivism
d) Symbolic interactionism

Which of the following is an example of an ascribed status?
a) being a grandchild
b) being a college graduate
c) being the mayor of a town
d) being a United States citizen

A(n) _______ status is a position you hold in society that affects most other aspects of your life.
a) achieved
b) ascribed
c) master
d) set

When a preschooler plays “going camping” with a group of three other children, each child taking a designated role, she is in the _________ stage.
a) game
b) self-concept
c) imitation
d) generalized other

_____ is dangerous because it is easy for groups to go along with a decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints.
a) Groupthink
b) Assimilation
c) Social stratification
d) Social exchange

A worker on an automotive assembly line would be in the...
a) working poor
b) middle class
c) working class
d) lower-upper class

Which of the following must be true in order for social stratification to occur?
a) There must be limited resources and these resources must be allocated equally among all people.
b) There must be limited resources and these resources must be allocated unequally among people.
c) There must be unlimited resources that are available to all people equally.
d) There must be a caste system.

A(n) ________ minority is typically defined by physical characteristics.
a) ethnic
b) assimilated
c) stereotyped
d) racial

Which of the following statements is true concerning African Americans?
a) While their income increases as they receive more education, it increases at a lower rate than that of whites.
b) African Americans’ income increases more rapidly than that of whites as they become better educated.
c) Generally speaking, they are discriminated against less than Asian Americans.
d) Their political power has decreased over the past 40 years.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between sex and gender identity?
a) Boys behave differently than girls from the time they are born, so parents treat them differently.
b) Parents treat girls differently from boys, which makes the child aware of being male or female.
c) Because women can give birth to children, they are more valued by society, and therefore receive better treatment.
d) It has been scientifically proven that behavioral differences between boys and girls are linked to biological characteristics

Which of the following statements is true concerning the elderly in the U.S. today?
a) Few elderly women live in poverty because their husbands provide security.
b) The elderly are worse off than they were 40 years ago.
c) Most elderly people who live in institutions are financially well off.
d) Discrimination against racial minorities increases as people age.

About 85% of corporate secretaries are female. This is an example of
a) gender identity.
b) biological determinism.
c) de jure sexism.
d) occupational sex segregation.

In Karl Marx's theories, he believed that industrial societies would eventually be made up of two classes. The ____ would own all the capital and means of production.
a) proletariat
b) verstehen
c) bourgeoisie
d) gemeinschaft

____ is an approach to sociology that focuses on the interactions among people based on mutually understood symbols.
a) Functionalism
b) Social Darwinism
c) Symbolic interactionism
d) Conflict perspective

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