Chapter 17, 18 And 19 Review Question Preview (ID: 31482)

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The endosymbiotic theory states that
a) the first organisms were microscopic algae and bacteria.
b) viruses arose from fragments of prokaryotic cells.
c) prokaryotic cells arose from organelles of eukaryotes.
d) eukaryotic cells arose from communities of prokaryotes.

Most genetic variation is due to
a) mutation and natural selection.
b) mutation and genetic shuffling.
c) artificial selection and natural selection.
d) founder effects and sexual recombination.

Speciation cannot take place without
a) homologous structures.
b) disruptive selection.
c) geographic isolation.
d) reproductive isolation.

The random change of allele frequencies in a population is called
a) mutation.
b) selection.
c) genetic drift.
d) gene flow

What are the sources of genetic variability?
a) mutations, lateral gene transfer, genetic recombination during sexual reproduction
b) immigration, founder effects, and artificial selection
c) emmigration, genetic drift, and bottleneck effect
d) migration, natural selection, and founder effects

When allele frequencies in a population remain constant, and evolution does not occur, this is referred to as
a) genetic drift.
b) genetic equilibrium.
c) the bottleneck effect.
d) the founder effect.

Evolution in a population has occured when
a) the allele frequencies stay the same.
b) the allele frequencies do not change.
c) the allele frequencies change.
d) artificial selection is used.

In a population of birds, it is an advantage to have a small beak to reach insects in crevices and it is also beneficial to have a large beak to crush seeds. It is a disadvantage to have an average beak size. This is an example of
a) sexual selection.
b) directional selection.
c) stabilizing selection.
d) disruptive selection.

The number of different genes that control a trait determine the
a) allele frequencies for the trait.
b) number of phenotypes for the trait.
c) size of the gene pool.
d) chance that natural selection will occur.

The weight of human infants at birth is under the influence of
a) directional selection.
b) disruptive selection.
c) stabilizing selection.
d) artificial selection.

One scientific hypothesis about the origin of life holds that
a) RNA replaced DNA as the most stable information-storing molecule.
b) RNA existed before DNA.
c) proteins that duplicate themselves came to function in information storage.
d) as cells evolved, they stopped using RNA entirely.

One reason common names are not useful to biologists is that they
a) are in Latin.
b) can apply to more than one animal.
c) are too long.
d) require the use of a dichotomous key.

What does a cladistic analysis show about organisms?
a) the importance of each derived character
b) the relative degrees of relatedness among lineages
c) the general fitness of the organisms analyzed
d) all traits of each organism analyzed

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