Biology 3rd Quarter Benchmark Exam Part 2: Question Preview (ID: 24695)

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Mutations that do not affect the organism itself, but may be passed on to the offspring are
a) somatic cell mutations
b) germ cell mutations
c) polygenic mutations
d) autosomal mutations

A short section of DNA known to have an association with a particular gene located nearby
a) allele
b) carrier
c) linkage group
d) genetic marker

In humans, traits controlled by 2 or more genes, such as skin color, eye color and height are
a) polygenic traits
b) multiple allele traits
c) sex-influenced traits
d) single allele traits

A point mutation that may go unnoticed because more than one codon may code for the same amino acid
a) insertion
b) inversion
c) substitution
d) nondisjunction

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that controls a particular hereditary trait
a) allele
b) gene
c) chromatid
d) gamete

What is the expected phenotypic ratio resulting from heterozygous X heterozygous dihybrid cross?
a) 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
b) 1 : 2 : 1
c) 3 : 1
d) 1 : 1

Monosomy and Trisomy are disorders caused by
a) nondisjunction
b) substitution
c) frame-shift mutations
d) inversion

An animal with the sex chromosomes XY, would most likely be a
a) male
b) female
c) hermaphrodite(both combined)
d) asexual(neither gender)

A genetic cross performed many times produces 500 tall plants and 200 short plants. The probability of obtaining a tall plant in a similar cross is
a) 300/500
b) 200/700
c) 500/700
d) 200/500

To determine the genotype of an individual that shows the dominant phenotype, you would cross that individual with one that is
a) heterozygous dominant
b) homozygous dominant
c) heterozygous recessive
d) homozygous recessive

A farmer is using artificial selection to produce insect-resistant fruit by only cross- pollinating those plants that do not get eaten or attacked by insects. Which statement best describes what the farmer is using artificial selection to do?
a) speed up the process of divergent evolution
b) slow down the process of convergent evolution
c) produce vestigial structures in selected species of plants
d) study the evolutionary history of organisms that contain similar proteins

According to Lamarck’s hypothesis of acquired traits, giraffes now have long necks because
a) longer necks are better suited to the environment
b) genes for longer necks have been inherited by offspring over many generations
c) during the lifetime of a giraffe, its neck stretched, and was inherited by offspring
d) short necked giraffes are less likely to produce offspring

If an organism has a vestigial structure, what can a biologist infer about the organism’s evolutionary history?
a) the organism once lived much differently in the past than it does today
b) the organism probably shares a common ancestry with an organism that has a functional version of the same feature
c) the organism’s vestigial structure is now useful but was not useful to it’s ancestors
d) that all modern day organisms evolved from animals with tails

According to Charles Darwin, organisms best suited to their environment reproduce more successfully than other organisms. This is known as the theory of
a) uniformitarianism
b) acquired characteristics
c) spontaneous generation
d) natural selection

For a population to be in genetic equilibrium,
a) population is small
b) random mating does not occur
c) selection must occur
d) no net mutations occur

In order to detect genetic disorders, it may be necessary to perform a ______________, which is a picture of an individual's chromosomes.
a) genotype
b) karyotype
c) phenotype
d) heredotype

All of the genes located on 1 chromosome can be shown by a
a) chromosome map
b) linkage group
c) nondisjunction
d) cross-over

The exchange of pieces of DNA between homologous chromosomes
a) crossing-over
b) nondisjunction
c) linkage group
d) carriers

In a monohybrid cross between a homozygous dominant parent and a homozygous recessive parent, one would predict the offspring to be
a) all homozygous dominant
b) all heterozygous
c) all homozygous recessive
d) 50% homo. dominant; 50% homo. recessive

Will you review how to analyze pedigrees before the exam?
a) yes
b) no

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