Reproduction And Genetics Part 2: Question Preview (ID: 24590)

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Genetic mutations are harmful or beneficial changes that occur in an individual’s
a) nucleotide base sequence in DNA.
b) nucleotide base sequence in a protein.
c) amino acid sequence in DNA.
d) amino acid sequence of a gene.

For a long time, penicillin was given to people to kill the bacteria which caused ear infections. Lately, some ear infections are not cured by penicillin. Which is the best explanation for this?
a) Some bacteria reproduce faster than the penicillin.
b) Some bacteria have mutated and are not killed by the penicillin.
c) Not enough penicillin was taken to kill all the bacteria.
d) Some ear infections are caused by bacteria from sore throats.

Which of the following best describes the result of a mutation in an organism’s DNA?
a) The mutation may produce a zygote.
b) The mutation may cause phenotypic change.
c) The mutation causes damage when it occurs.
d) The mutation creates entirely new organisms.

a) do not happen very often.
b) cause more offspring to be heterozygous.
c) happen more often to homozygous gene pairs.
d) are constantly happening in the gene pool.

Crossing over results in which of these?
a) a new zygote
b) fertilization
c) new gene combinations
d) translation

If a segment of DNA is TAC GAT TAG, the complementary mRNA strand that results from this segment will be

Genetic information usually flows in one specific direction. Which of the following best represents this flow?
a) DNA to Protein to RNA
b) Protein to RNA to DNA
c) RNA to Protein to DNA
d) DNA to RNA to Protein

Which amino acid would be transferred to the position of codon CAC?
a) GUG--Histidine
b) GAA--Leucine
c) UGU--Threonine
d) GCU--Arginine

A scientist puts nucleotide chains of UUUUUU in a test tube under conditions allowing protein synthesis. Soon the test tube is full of polypeptide chains composed of only the amino acid phenylalanine. What does this experiment indicate?
a) The amino acid phenylalanine is composed of uracil.
b) UUU codes for the amino acid phenylalanine.
c) Protein synthesis malfunctions in test tubes.
d) Most proteins contain only one type of amino acid.

Harmful genetic mutations that occur in an individual’s somatic cells will
a) not be passed to offspring.
b) harm the individual’s offspring.
c) cause cancer in the individual.
d) cause cancer in the individual’s offspring.

Genetic engineering to create biomedical products that benefit society often involves the use of recombinant DNA technology. Recombinant DNA is DNA that has
a) many genetic mutations.
b) genes inserted from other organisms.
c) been taken from a crime scene.
d) resistance to genetic disease.

DNA manipulation is used to produce beneficial products, such as human insulin. Strands labeled A and C are both part of the same individual's DNA. When DNA fragment B is inserted in between fragments A and C, the resulting DNA is know
a) a clone.
b) recombinant DNA.
c) mitochondrial DNA
d) a mutated gene

Apomixis is a type of asexual reproduction in which adult plants grow directly from egg cells. Which of these does not occur during apomixis?
a) Mitosis
b) Transcription
c) Fertilization
d) Translation

Which of these make up the primary link between a gene and the expression of a trait?
a) Proteins
b) Sugars
c) Lipids
d) Vitamins

Which of these does NOT occur during meiosis?
a) production of identical gametes
b) production of new gene combinations
c) crossing-over of homologous chromosomes
d) reduction of chromosome number by one-half

One kind of chromosomal mutation can occur during meiosis when a pair of chromosomes that carry genes for the same trait fail to separate. Which of these represents the sex chromosomes of a male organism when this type of chromosomal mutation has occ
a) XXY
b) XX
c) XY
d) XXX

Original strand--ATT CAG. New strand--UAA GUC. This new strand will most likely be used for
a) gene splicing
b) DNA synthesis
c) crossing over
d) protein synthesis

Which of these is an example of a heterozygous genotype?
a) Rr
b) RR
c) wrinkled
d) round

Normal thymine (T) is found in the old strand. It is replaced by an abnormal molecule (T*) in the new strand. The abnormal molecule (T*) binds to guanine (G) instead of binding to adenine (A). This is an example of
a) an adaptation
b) protein synthesis
c) mutation
d) binary fission

The genetic information for making a protein must move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Which of these moves this information to the cytoplasm?
a) a ribosome
b) DNA
c) RNA
d) an amino acid

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