Genetics And Evolution: Question Preview (ID: 19451)

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In squash plants, yellow fruit (Y) is dominant to white fruit (y). If two plants heterozygous for yellow fruit are crossed, what are the possible genotypes of the offspring?
a) YY, yy only
b) Yy, yy only
c) Yy only
d) YY, Yy, yy only

After a culture of cells is allowed to multiply and is viewed through a microscope, the cells are x-rayed with high-energy radiation for less than 1/100th of a second. After the radiation, many newly reproduced cells appear different. What happened?
a) Contamination
b) Speciation
c) Mutation
d) Bacterial infection

Which of the following is an example of a genetically engineered organism?
a) A new plant variety created by cross-pollination
b) A plant that received external DNA to produce natural insecticides
c) A plant that naturally possesses medicinal properties
d) Seedless fruits resulting from grafting of one plant onto another

Wild cats such as cheetahs, lions, and tigers experience decreased genetic diversity as their populations decline and become fragmented due to habitat destruction. Decreased genetic diversity leads to populations with
a) increased immigration rates
b) increased birthrates
c) decreased disease resistance
d) disproportionate gender ratios

People who have been exposed to excessive radiation often experience mutations. If these mutations only occur in somatic (body) cells, these people may —
a) experience difficulties replicating RNA
b) experience an increased risk of cancer
c) develop entirely new DNA sequences inall cells
d) pass on these mutations to their offspring

In cows, long hair is dominant to short hair. In a cow that is heterozygous for long hair, what percentage of the cells undergoing meiosis will carry the dominant allele?
a) 25%
b) 50%
c) 75%
d) 100%

In rabbits, short fur (F) is dominant to long fur (f). According to the Punnett square, what is the chance of two heterozygous short-haired rabbits having offspring with short fur?
a) one in four
b) two in four
c) three in four
d) four in four

Which of the following statements describes the process of natural selection?
a) Populations sharing the same gene pool interbreed and create new species.
b) New species are formed via genetic engineering.
c) Individuals survive that have inherited traits adapted to their environment.
d) Farmers select animals with desirable variations for breeding.

DNA that is derived from the DNA of two or more different species is called —
a) mitochondrial DNA
b) recombinant DNA
c) chloroplast DNA
d) plasmid

Lamarck was an early scientist who studied the development of characteristics in organisms over time. Which of the following choices best describes his views on how organisms change over time?
a) Law of independent assortment
b) Theory of relative fossil-dating
c) Theory of acquired characteristics
d) Theory of artificial selection

A genetic pedigree showing that only males are affected by a certain disorder is evidence of what type of inheritance?
a) Dominant
b) Sex-linked
c) Recessive
d) Passive

The chances of developing cancer, diabetes, or sickle-cell anemia are higher if a family member also has the disorder because they are —
a) related to diet
b) highly infections
c) passed through blood contact
d) genetically based

Over many generations, unrelated or distantly related species may come to resemble each other due to —
a) competition with each other
b) homologous structural adaptations
c) similar genetic mutatinos
d) similar environmental factors

External sources, such as radiation or chemicals, can cause mutations in genes or entire chromosomes. For a mutation to pass on to offspring, it must occur in a —
a) bone cell
b) brain cell
c) muscle cell
d) sex cell

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