MCAS Review - Earth Science: Question Preview (ID: 19152)

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Which of the following areas is most likely to form metamorphic rocks such as gneiss and schist?
a) a sea floor
b) a windblown desert
c) a site deep underground
d) a site covered by a glacier

Which of the following keeps the planets in our solar system in orbit around the Sun?
a) atmospheric pressure
b) gravitational force
c) electromagnetic energy
d) thermal energy

Heat from deep in Earth’s interior is transferred to its crust by which of the following?
a) conduction in the ocean
b) convection in the mantle
c) radiation from the solid core
d) evaporation at mid-ocean ridges

What is the primary energy source that drives all weather events, including precipitation, hurricanes, and tornados?
a) the Sun
b) the Moon
c) Earth’s gravity
d) Earth’s rotation

Which of the following statements best explains why the tilt of Earth on its axis causes summer to be warmer than winter in the Northern Hemisphere?
a) The warm ocean currents flow from the tropics to the Northern Hemisphere in the summer.
b) The rays of the Sun strike the Northern Hemisphere more directly in the summer.
c) The greenhouse effect increases in the Northern Hemisphere in the summer
d) The Northern Hemisphere is closer to the Sun in the summer.

Seafloor spreading provides evidence of which of the following Earth processes?
a) erosion of coastlines
b) weathering of mountains
c) movement of crustal plates
d) formation of sedimentary rocks

Which of the following provides the best evidence that Earth has evolved over geologic time?
a) coral reefs that slowly changed size
b) desert sand dunes that were shaped by winds
c) deposits of sediment found at the mouth of a river
d) rock containing fossilized seashells found on a mountaintop

The Appalachian Mountains, which extend from Canada to Alabama, were much taller in the past than they are today. Which of the following two processes are most responsible for the decrease in the height of the Appalachian Mountains?
a) weathering and erosion
b) sedimentation and flooding
c) volcanic eruptions and landslides
d) tectonic collisions and earthquakes

Which of the following statements best explains why a comet travels more quickly when it is closer to the Sun?
a) The mass of the comet increases.
b) The temperature of the comet increases.
c) The frictional force on the comet increases.
d) The gravitational pull on the comet increases.

Which of the following is the best estimate of the number of stars in a typical galaxy.
a) hundreds
b) thousands
c) millions
d) billions

Which of the following Earth's layers has the greatest density?
a) crust
b) mantle
c) inner core
d) outer core

Which of the following statements best describes one way that the Moon is different from the Earth
a) The Moon is not solid.
b) The Moon has no gravity
c) The Moon has almost no atmosphere.
d) The Moon receives almost no solar light.

Which of the following most likely causes Earth’s inner core to be a solid?
a) The pressure at the core is very high.
b) The metals in the core are very heavy.
c) The temperature of the core is very low.
d) The chemicals in the core are very reactive.

Which of the following has changed over the last 200 years primarily due to human activity?
a) Earth’s magnetic field
b) the frequency of earthquakes
c) Earth’s tectonic plate activity
d) the composition of the atmosphere

If a solid object is taken from Earth far into space, which of the following measurements of the object will change the most?
a) density
b) mass
c) volume
d) weight

Which of the following planets is always closer to the Sun than it is to Earth?
a) Jupiter
b) Mercury
c) Saturn
d) Uranus

A layer of solid brittle rock comprises the outer 100 kilometers of Earth. This layer, which contains both the crust and upper mantle, is called the
a) core
b) sediment
c) lithosphere
d) hemisphere

Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465°C in sunlight to –180°C in darkness. Why is there such a large range of temperatures on Mercury?
a) The planet is too small to hold heat.
b) The planet is heated on only one side.
c) The planet reflects heat from its dark side.
d) The planet lacks an atmosphere to hold heat.

Which of the following correctly lists the structures in space from smallest to largest?
a) star, galaxy, solar system, universe
b) star, solar system, galaxy, universe
c) star, solar system, universe, galaxy
d) star, universe, solar system, galaxy

Which layer of the Earth is composed primarily of solid iron?
a) crust
b) mantle
c) inner core
d) outer core

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