Argument For Evolution: Question Preview (ID: 18951)

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The same kinds of cells that grow in similar patterns in different but related organisms produce
a) the same kind of embryos.
b) natural variations in a population.
c) descent with modification.
d) homologous structures such as wings and arms.

Which concept is NOT included in the modern theory of evolution?
a) descent with modification
b) natural selection
c) transmission of acquired characteristics
d) competition among the members of a population

Modern sea star larvae resemble some primitive vertebrate larvae. This similarity may suggest that primitive vertebrates
a) share a common ancestor with sea stars.
b) evolved from sea stars.
c) evolved before sea stars.
d) belong to the same species as sea stars.

In humans, the pelvis and femur, or thigh bone, are involved in walking. In whales, the pelvis and femur are....?
a) examples of fossils.
b) acquired traits.
c) vestigial structures.
d) examples of natural variation.

When a farmer breeds only his or her best livestock, the process involved is
a) natural selection.
b) artificial selection.
c) artificial variation.
d) survival of the fittest.

Which statement about the members of a population that live long enough to reproduce is consistent with the theory of natural selection?
a) They transmit characteristics acquired by use and disuse to their offspring.
b) They tend to produce fewer offspring than others in the population.
c) They are the ones that are best adapted to survive in their environment.
d) They will perpetuate unfavorable changes in the species.

In 1859, Charles Darwin published his revolutionary scientific ideas in a work titled
a) Principles of Geology.
b) Essay on the Principle of Population.
c) Evolution in Malaysia.
d) On the Origin of Species.

When farmers select animals or plants to use for breeding, they look for
a) species that are perfect and unchanging.
b) homologous structures.
c) traits that are produced artificially.
d) natural variations that are present in a species.

In each generation, the wings of experimental fruit flies were clipped short for fifty generations. The fifty-first generation emerged with normal-length wings. This observation would tend to disprove the idea that evolution is based on
a) inheritance of natural variations.
b) inheritance of acquired characteristics.
c) natural selection.
d) survival of the fittest.

Which is a major concept included in Lamarck’s theory of evolution?
a) Change is the result of survival of the fittest.
b) Body structure can change according to the actions of the organism.
c) Population size decreases the rate of evolution.
d) Artificial selection is the basis for evolution.

James Hutton’s and Charles Lyell’s work suggests that
a) Earth is many millions of years old.
b) Earth is several thousand years old.
c) all fossils were formed in the last 1000 years.
d) all rocks on Earth contain fossils.

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck proposed that organisms
a) have an innate tendency toward complexity and perfection.
b) have an innate tendency to become simpler as time passes.
c) inherit all of the adaptations they display.
d) belong to species that never change.

The species of finches that Charles Darwin found on the Galápagos Islands displayed different structural adaptations. One of the adaptations that Darwin noted was the
a) similarities of the birds’ embryos.
b) birds’ different-shaped beaks.
c) length of the birds’ necks.
d) number of eggs in each bird’s nest.

On the Galápagos Islands, Charles Darwin observed
a) completely unrelated species on each of the islands.
b) species exactly like those found in South America.
c) somewhat similar species, with traits that suited their particular environments.
d) species completely unrelated to those found in South America.

During his voyage on the Beagle, Charles Darwin made many observations
a) in England.
b) in North America.
c) on the Galápagos Islands.
d) in Asia.

Which process has the greatest effect in determining which members of a population are most likely to survive until reproductive age?
a) Evolution
b) Natural selection
c) Meiosis
d) Hybridization

According to Darwin’s theory of evolution, what causes the struggle for survival in populations?
a) Overproduction of offspring
b) Favourable heritable variations
c) Natural selection
d) Competition between the fittest individuals in the population

Why has evolution resulted in antibiotic resistance in bacteria?
a) Not completing a course of antibiotics allows resistant bacteria to develop.
b) Bacteria resistant to the antibiotic survive to pass on this characteristic to their offspring
c) Bacteria change their metabolism to cope with the presence of antibiotics.
d) Bacteria have learnt how to neutralize the effects of the antibiotic and they pass this onto their offspring.

What is natural selection?
a) Making a random choice of partner for reproduction
b) Increased reproductive success by those with favourable variation
c) Variation due to mutations in a population
d) The survival of the largest organisms in a population

What is natural selection?
a) The mechanism that increases the chance of certain individuals reproducing.
b) The mechanism that leads to increasing variation within a population.
c) The cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population.
d) The mechanism that explains why populations produce more offspring than the environment can support.

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