Natural Selection Quiz Review: Question Preview (ID: 18195)

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The number and location of bones of many fossil vertebrates are similar to those in living vertebrates. Most biologists would probably explain this fact on the basis of:
a) The needs of the organisms.
b) common ancestor
c) The struggle for existence
d) The inheritance of acquired traits.

Charles Darwin concluded that the 13 species of finches on the Galápagos Islands:
a) were identical to 13 finch species in northwestern South America 600 miles to the east
b) probably evolved from one ancestral South American species
c) had all adapted to the same food sources
d) more than one of the above

Through careful observation, Charles Darwin came to understand that:
a) populations of plants and animals in nature most often consist of individuals that are clones of each other
b) variations give natural advantages to pass on traits
c) populations of a species that become isolated from others by adapting to different environmental niches quickly become extinc
d) all other options

Which of the following statements is true about Charles Darwin?
a) He believed that evolution was due to the inheritance of acquired characteristics
b) He supported Lamarck's explanation of how evolution occurred
c) He understood that the variation that exists in natural populations of plants or animals is the result of repeated mutations
d) none of the options

The example of the peppered moths living near English industrial cities demonstrates that:
a) a change in an environment can result in the evolution of species living there
b) evolution occurs so slowly that it is not possible to determine that it has happened in less than a million years
c) the environment near these cities has always favored dark colored moths

The theory of evolution by natural selection was independently developed by:
a) Charles Lyell and Charles Darwin
b) Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
c) Erasmus Darwin and Lamarck
d) Charles Lyell and James Hutton

Which of the following statements about Darwin is true?
a) He failed to convince the majority of biologists and other educated people in the late 19th century that life evolves.
b) He thought that the biggest and strongest animals are always at an advantage in natural selection.
c) His book /On the Origin of Species/ did not sell well and the biologists in his time did not take much notice of it.
d) none of the options

Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution by natural selection failed to explain how
a) nature operates to reduce variation in a population every generation
b) new genetic varieties can appear in a population every generation
c) none of the options

The evolution of one species into two or more species as a result of different populations becoming reproductively isolated from each other is:
a) adaptive radiation
b) directional selection
c) niche
d) gradualism

Which of the following ideas was developed by Thomas Malthus?
a) a) Peppered moths living near English industrial cities provide a good example of evolution.
b) b) The diversity of Galápagos finch species is the result of natural selection.
c) c) Living things often produce far more offspring than are needed to maintain their numbers.

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