Ch 17 18 19 TEST 1: Question Preview (ID: 17437)

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________ was the first to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe.
a) Ptolemy
b) Nicholas Copernicus
c) Johannes Kepler
d) Martin Luther

In Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concept of a social contract,
a) an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
b) punishments are not exercises in brutality
c) the government should not interfere in economic matters
d) women should be granted rights nearly equal to those of men

Who has been rightly called the father of modern rationalism?
a) Chaucer
b) Francis Bacon
c) Rene Descartes
d) Robert Boyle

Montesquieu's most lasting contribution to political thought was his
a) analysis of the governmental system of checks and balances
b) identification of natural laws
c) theory that the government should interfere with religious matters
d) idea that punishments should be brutal to be effective

Adam Smith believed
a) the assets of the rich should be taken
b) the state should not regulate the economy
c) those who are able to work should help support those who are not able
d) the state should monitor the economy and impose regulations to keep it healthy

The French National Assembly swore the Tennis Court Oath, which was
a) a promise to destroy all of the nation's tennis braclets
b) a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution
c) an oath of loyalty to Jean Valjean
d) a promise not to rest until all members of the clergy were tried and executed

The term sans-culottes implied that members of this political group were
a) women, because they wore skirts
b) very poor
c) pacifists who did not use guns
d) ordinary patriots without fine clothes

The Committee of Public Safety was given broad powers to
a) drain all canals
b) defend France from threats
c) protest the Paris Commune from thieves
d) restore order to Brussels

In its attempts to create a new order that reflected its belief in reason, the National Convention
a) declared new national holidays celebrating the great French cuisine
b) ordered the building of several new libraries and universities
c) pursued a policy of dechristianization, going so far as to adopt a new calendar
d) drafted yet another Constitution to reflect the ideas of Enlightenment

What were the two major reasons that Napoleon’s Grand Empire collapsed?
a) Napoleon's greed and laziness within his bureaucracy
b) the survival of Great Britain and the force of nationalism
c) the resentment of the clergy and the plotting of the accountants
d) France's weak economy and the drain of Napoleon's many wars

In his final battle, Napoleon was defeated by
a) the bitter Russian winter
b) a combined French and Swiss army
c) the Duke of Wellington
d) the superior British navy

Which of France's estates was NOT exempt from the taille?
a) the First Estate (clergy)
b) the Second Estate (nobility)
c) the Third Estate (commoners)
d) the Fourth Estate (middle class)

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed
a) equal rights for all men, but no political rights for women
b) an end to the monarchy and the abolishing of a National Assembly
c) equal eights for all citizens including women
d) an end to the National Police Force

The difference between the Girondins and the Mountain was that
a) the Girondins were members of the Tennis Court, while the Mountain was not.
b) the Girondins leaned toward keeping the king alive, while the Mountain wanted the king executed.
c) the Girondins were radicals in the city of Amsterdam, while the Mountain represented Germany.
d) the Girondins were legitimately elected by the people, while the Mountain seized power by force.

____ was the brutal head of the Committee of Public Safety.
a) Maximilien Robespierre
b) Jean-Paul Marat
c) Jean Valjean
d) Victor Hugo

The Russians defeated Napoleon’s superior Grand Army by
a) retreating hundreds of miles and burning their own villages and countryside.
b) waiting to attack during the brutal Russian winter.
c) splitting their meager forces in half and attacking from two sides.
d) making an alliance with Egypt, which launched an attack on Turkey to draw Napoleon out of Russia

The Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon at
a) Annecy in France.
b) Waterloo in Belgium.
c) the Black Forest in Germany.
d) Moscow in Russia.

The production of ____ was one of the first industries to be affected by the Industrial Revolution.
a) automobiles
b) cotton cloth
c) toys
d) furniture

The factory created a new labor system in which
a) products were produced by an assembly line of workers and animals.
b) workers had to adjust to periods of hectic work, followed by periods of inactivity.
c) machines were valued more highly than the men who ran them.
d) workers had to work regular hours and do the same work over and over.

By 1830, two-thirds of the British cotton industry’s workforce were
a) rural farm families who had moved to the city from Canada.
b) immigrants from France and Belgium.
c) women and children.
d) slaves from Africa and South America.

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