Benchmark Fall Review: Question Preview (ID: 16522)

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1. What is the function of glucose in the human body? (think respiration)
a) A. It makes up the outer membrane of a cell.
b) B. It reacts with oxygen to produce energy.
c) C. It carries the instructions for creating amino acids.
d) D. It neutralizes chemicals in the blood.

2. Both plants and animals have evolved ways of storing energy for later use. Which two categories of biomolecules are often used for this purpose?
a) A. carbohydrates and lipids
b) B. carbohydrates and nucleic acids
c) C. lipids and proteins
d) D. proteins and nucleic acids

3. Owls survive by eating rodents, small birds, and small mammals. Coyotes also eat these animals. If a large population of coyotes moved into the owls’ territory, what would probably happen to the owl population?
a) A. The owl population would mutate.
b) B. The owl population would increase.
c) C. The owl population would stabilize.
d) D. The owl population would decrease.

4. What does this high level of differentiation mean for the cell?
a) A. The cell has a specific function, but under the right conditions it can become any other type of human cell in the body.
b) B. The cell has a specific function and cannot become any other type of cell, but it can still reproduce all other cell types
c) C. The cell has a specific function and cannot become any other type of cell. It can only reproduce cells of the same type.
d) D. The cell has a specific function, but under the right conditions the cell can become a few other types of cell.

5. Which process is triggered when the cells grow large enough to reproduce?
a) A. homeostasis
b) B. mitosis
c) C. meiosis
d) D. cytokinesis

6. Mitochondria create an abundance of ATP energy molecules during cellular respiration. Which of the following is not a use of these ATP molecules? (think passive vs active transport)
a) A. the sodium-potassium pump moving ions against their concentration gradients
b) B. an amoeba engulfing a bacterium by the process of endocytosis
c) C. water moving into a cell when placed in a hypotonic solution
d) D. a muscle cell resetting itself after a contraction has occurred

7. Structures inside chlorophyta cells include nuclei, chloroplasts, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticula, and vacuoles. Which word best describes chlorophyta cells?
a) A. eukaryotic
b) B. inorganic
c) C. prokaryotic
d) D. synthetic

8. Which of the following explains one way that enzymes affect the digestion of food?
a) A. Enzymes in saliva lower the activation energy of the chemical reactions involved in digestion.
b) B. Enzymes in saliva raise the activation energy of the chemical reactions involved in digestion.
c) C. Enzymes in saliva dissolve the nutrients in food before it moves to the stomach.
d) D. Enzymes in saliva neutralize acids in food so they will not react with acids in the stomach.

9. What happens to individual cells placed in highly salty body fluids?
a) A. They take in large amounts of salt to attempt to balance things out.
b) B. They take in large amounts of water and may burst.
c) C. They release large amounts of water and shrivel up.
d) D. They take in some of the salt and release some of their water as well.

The process of MEIOSIS produces cells that have half the number of chromosomes than are in the somatic cells of a species. What is the outcome for a species because of this reduction in chromosome number?
a) A. It increases genetic uniformity within the species.
b) B. It increases genetic instability within the species.
c) C. It increases genetic disorders within the species.
d) D. It increases genetic variation within the species.

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