CJA 310 Final Review 1: Question Preview (ID: 10323)

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According to Cloward and Ohlin, when youths fail in both the criminal and conflict subcultures, they move toward which of these subcultures? [p. 97]
a) retreatist
b) ritualistic
c) middle-class
d) legitimate

Sykes and Matza argued with Cohen’s idea of separate lower class values. Instead they argued, you only need: [p. 102–103]
a) neutralization
b) near groups
c) focal concerns
d) measuring rods

Miller claimed that the lower class: [pp. 98–100]
a) was a separate culture with distinct lifestyles and values
b) engaged in non-utilitarian behaviors
c) served as a scapegoat for the upper classes
d) exhibited values that were created in opposition to middle-class values

The idea that groups of delinquents under the supervision of an adult counselor can assist each other to become more law abiding is known as: [p. 104]
a) The middle class measuring rod
b) guided group interaction
c) reaction formation
d) Project Head Start

According to Becker, the four types of deviant behavior are: [p. 113]
a) falsely accused, pure deviant, conforming, and secret deviant
b) falsely accused, pure deviant, conforming, and rebellious
c) pure deviant, conforming, secret deviant, and ritualistic deviant
d) pure deviant, ritualistic deviant, conforming, and secret deviant

When past events and behavior are reinterpreted to fit a new identity, this is referred to as: [p. 117]
a) retrospective interpretation
b) master status
c) labeling
d) false persona

Labeling theory, as opposed to most other criminological theories, asks: [p. 111]
a) why was the person designated as deviant?
b) what caused the behavior?
c) why do men obey the rules of society?
d) how did this particular act, and not another, take place?

According to conflict theorists in general: [pp. 127, 139–140]
a) law is a social creation that reflects the distribution of power in society
b) law is a morally correct instrument, it is the way in which it is applied that matters most
c) law is value-free
d) none of these

Conflict theories have the following in common: [pp. 127, 139–140]
a) they assume that there is little agreement in society
b) they all suggest that the various theories are in conflict
c) they predict high rates of broken homes
d) conflict theories have nothing in common

According to the textbook, another way to look at social control theory is to call it: [p. 148]
a) socialization theory
b) neo-conflict theory
c) differential motivation theory
d) post-modernism

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