Learning: Question Preview (ID: 6069)

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According to the text, learning involves:
a) the ability to think abstractly.
b) a change in behavior due to experience.
c) the development of prosocial behavior.
d) a reduction in extrinsic motivation.

By learning to associate a squirt of water with an electric shock, sea snails demonstrate the process of:
a) spontaneous recovery.
b) classical conditioning.
c) observational learning.
d) operant conditioning.

The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:
a) Watson
b) Skinner
c) Badura
d) Pavlov

John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n):
a) physiological psychologist.
b) cognitive psychologist.
c) behaviorist.
d) psychoanalist

In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was:
a) a tone.
b) salivation to the sound of a tone.
c) he presentation of food in the dog's mouth.
d) salivation to the food in the mouth.

In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n):
a) conditioned response.
b) unconditioned stimulus.
c) unconditioned response.
d) conditioned stimulus.

If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a(n)
a) unconditioned stimulus.
b) primary reinforcer.
c) conditioned stimulus.
d) immediate reinforcer.

Pavlov's research on classical conditioning was important because:
a) it highlighted the role of cognitive processes in learning.
b) so many different species of animals, including humans, can be classically conditioned.
c) it demonstrated an essential difference between animal and human learning.
d) all learning depends on reinforcement.

The ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus is called:
a) acquisition.
b) discrimination.
c) generalization.
d) latent learning.

Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates:
a) generalization.
b) secondary reinforcement.
c) shaping.
d) spontaneous recovery.

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