Benchmark Exam Review: Question Preview (ID: 24411)

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A branching diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among organisms based upon common ancestry and shared characteristics is called a __.
a) phylogenetic tree
b) cladogram
c) neither A nor B
d) both A and B

Viruses and living cells have many similarites and differences. Which of the following is an important similarity?
a) Requires oxygen to survive.
b) Reproduces by meiosis.
c) Contains a nucleus.
d) Contains genetic information.

An organism that has a cell wall but no nucleus and lives without oxygen in extreme environments most likely belongs to which of the follwing kingdoms?
a) fungi
b) protista
c) archaebacteria
d) eubacteria

Organisms in this kingdom are heterotrophic, have a cell wall, cell membrane, and nucleus, but no chloroplasts, and obtain their energy through absorption.
a) fungi
b) protista
c) animalia
d) plantae

A photosynthetic, autotrophic organism that contains a cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, and chloroplasts, most likely belongs to which of the following kingdoms?
a) animalia
b) plantae
c) protista
d) fungi

Which of the following human activities modify our environment?
a) global warming
b) deforestation
c) habitat destruction
d) all of the above

What will most likely happen if decomposers are removed from the carbon cycle?
a) The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will increase.
b) The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will decrease.
c) The amount of carbon dioxide used by producers will increase.
d) The amount of carbon dioxide needed by consumers will decrease.

Which level of ecological organization contains all other levels?
a) biome
b) ecosystem
c) population
d) community

Cellular respiration, decomposition, combustion, and photosynthesis are processes that drive which of the following cycles in ecosystems?
a) the phosphorous cycle
b) the water cycle
c) the nitrogen cycle
d) the carbon cycle

If the following organisms were arranged in a food pyramid, which organism would have the least amount of total energy available? shrub, lizard, insect, or coyote?
a) shrub
b) insect
c) lizard
d) coyote

When penicillin was first introduced, it was very effective in destroying most of the bacteria that cause gonorrhea. Today, certain varieties of this bacterium are resistant to penicillin. Which statement best explains the resistant varieties?
a) Penicillin stimulated the production of antigens in the resistant bacteria.
b) Penicillin used today is not as strong as the penicillin used when it was first introduced.
c) Penicillin killed the susceptible bacteria, while naturally resistant varieties survived and reproduced.
d) Penicillin stimulated the bacteria to become resistant, and this resistance was passed to the offspring.

In terms of ecological organization, how is an ecosystem different from a population?
a) A population is larger in size than an ecosystem.
b) An ecosystem has less biodiversity than a population.
c) A population is comprised of several small ecosystems.
d) An ecosystem has biotic and abiotic factors, but a population has biotic factors.

In general, which trophic level has the most energy available to it?
a) producer
b) primary consumer
c) secondary consumer
d) tertiary consumer

The fossil record supports which of the following descriptions of the evolution of life on Earth?
a) Life first appeared with the diversity found today.
b) The importance of natural selection diminished over time.
c) Complex organisms evolved from more simple organisms.
d) Large organisms appeared before single-celled organisms.

Which is a conclusion drawn from the observed DNA similarities found between apes and chimpanzees?
a) Apes and chimpanzees are in the same genus
b) Apes and chimpanzees are in the same species
c) Apes and chimpanzees are products of artificial selection
d) Apes and chimpanzees are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor

Fossils help scientists classify extinct species and determine their relationships to current species. Fossils provide the most information about extinct species' __.
a) habitats
b) structures
c) metabolism
d) reproduction

Classification systems are used to indicate evolutionary relationships among organisms. Modern classification systems are based upon ___.
a) modes of movement and reproduction
b) biochemical and genetic evidence
c) physical characteristics and habitats
d) behavioral adaptations and eating preferences

Which idea about evolution was held by Darwin but not by Lamarck?
a) Species are fixed and do not change.
b) Species are moving toward perfection.
c) Organisms best suited to their environment survive and reproduce.
d) The use or disuse of an organ determines its appearance in a species.

Which is the greatest threat to biodiversity?
a) hunting and fishing without a license
b) introducing non-native species into a habitat
c) growing flowers and vegetables in a home garden
d) increasing the amount of land set aside for conservation

Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution based on observations of nature. Which observation that contributed to his theory is illustrated by differences in appearance within populations of organisms? (ex. Patterns of beatles)
a) Environmental resources are limited
b) Populations remain stable over time
c) Individuals within a population may vary widely
d) Species produce more offspring than can survive

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