Origin Of Life Review: Question Preview (ID: 24893)


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Which are possible sources of energy that could have led to the production of these first precursors to life?
a) lightning and cellular respiration b) nuclear radiation and photosynthesis c) photosynthesis and cellular respiration d) solar radiation, volcanic eruptions, and lightning
Which of the following statements about the effect of early organisms on Earth’s environment is true?
a) The first photosynthetic organisms caused Earth to cool as they converted oxygen to carbon dioxide b) The first photosynthetic organisms caused Earth to cool as they converted carbon dioxide to oxygen c) The first photosynthetic organisms caused Earth to heat as they converted oxygen to carbon dioxide. d) The first photosynthetic organisms caused Earth to heat as they converted carbon dioxide to oxygen
One scientific hypothesis about the origin of life holds that
a) RNA replaced DNA as the most stable information-storing molecule. b) RNA existed before DNA. c) proteins that duplicate themselves came to function in information storage. d) as cells evolved, they stopped using RNA entirely.
Proteinoid microspheres are tiny bubbles that resemble cells because they
a) contain DNA and/or RNA. b) have selectively permeable membranes. c) build proteins from amino acids. d) add oxygen gas to the atmosphere.
The endosymbiotic theory was proposed because mitochondria, chloroplasts, and free-living prokaryotes have similar
a) cell walls. b) cell membranes. c) cell nuclei. d) vacuoles
The endosymbiotic theory proposes that mitochondria in eukaryotic cells arose from
a) endosymbiotic eukaryotes that metabolized oxygen. b) endosymbiotic eukaryotes that were photosynthetic. c) endosymbiotic prokaryotes that metabolized oxygen. d) endosymbiotic prokaryotes that were photosynthetic.
The endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from
a) individual prokaryotic cells b) multicellular prokaryotes. c) communities formed by prokaryotes. d) communities formed by eukaryotes.
Which one of these facts about mitochondria and chloroplasts constitutes support for the endosymbiotic theory?
a) Their DNA resembles bacterial RNA. b) Their ribosomes resemble the ribosomes of bacteria. c) They are organelles that are found within plant cells. d) They reproduce by mitosis.
Genetic diversity in prokaryotes is primarily due to
a) the mixing of DNA during binary fission. b) mutations in DNA. c) the mixing of DNA during fertilization. d) mutations in RNA.
Sexual reproduction contributes to genetic diversity by allowing
a) a single parent to pass along a complete set of unmixed genes to offspring. b) unmixed genes from two parents to be passed to offspring. c) genes from two parents to be mixed and remixed before being passed to offspring. d) genes from a single parent to be mixed and remixed before being passed to offspring.
Which types of organisms developed first due to the early environmental conditions on Earth?
a) prokaryotic and aerobic b) prokaryotic and anaerobic c) eukaryotic and aerobic d) eukaryotic and anaerobic
One theory to explain the origin of life is called chemical evolution. According to this theory, which of the following events would need to occur first for life to evolve?
a) onset of photosynthesis b) origin of genetic material c) Synthesis of organic molecules d) formation of the plasma membrane
Which of the following describes why the Miller-Urey theory is widely accepted today?
a) Amino acids spontaneously form from molecules in the atmosphere today. b) Organic molecules are present today in extremely high concentrations. c) The process of synthesizing organic molecules from a mixture of gases has been successfully modeled in the laboratory. d) No other alternative hypotheses have been introduced.
In which of the following circumstances would it be most likely for large organic molecules to form during a laboratory experiment?
a) If amino acids and nucleic acids both formed b) If oxygen were slowly added as the experiment progressed c) If RNA segments that could act as catalysts formed d) If the mixture were repeatedly heated and cooled
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